The relationship between federal and state marijuana laws in the United States presents a complex and evolving landscape. While federal law continues to classify marijuana as a Schedule I substance under the Controlled Substances Act, equating it with drugs like heroin, state-level policies have increasingly diverged from this stance.
As of March 1, 2023, 21 states, along with Washington D.C., Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands, have enacted laws permitting the recreational use of marijuana. These state initiatives remove all state-imposed penalties for specified activities involving marijuana, marking a significant policy gap with the federal stance.
In California, a pioneer in cannabis legalization, cannabis has been legal for medicinal use since the Compassionate Use Act of 1996 and for adult (recreational) use in recent years. The state’s Department of Cannabis Control ensures that businesses operate safely and that products are contaminant-free and accurately labeled.
Conversely, Texas maintains strict laws against cannabis, classifying it as a Schedule I substance and aligning with federal law. The Texas Controlled Substances Act prohibits the possession and sale of cannabis, with detailed information available on the Recreational Use page.
New Jersey’s Cannabis Regulatory Enforcement Assistance and Marketplace Modernization (CREAMM) Act, on the other hand, legalizes the sale and use of cannabis for those aged 21 and over. This act is part of a broader trend of states adopting more liberal policies towards cannabis use.
Public health perspectives on marijuana, as presented by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, focus on understanding the health impacts of marijuana use. The CDC’s work includes identifying concerns and advancing knowledge about the public health effects of marijuana.
The evolving state policies and the expanding policy gap with federal law highlight a dynamic and contentious area of American law and public policy, reflecting changing societal attitudes towards marijuana and its use.